Language: Facts and Built-in Variables

Included in Puppet Enterprise 3.7. A newer version is available; see the version menu above for details.

Before requesting a catalog (or compiling one with puppet apply), Puppet will collect system information with Facter. Puppet receives this information as facts, which are pre-set variables you can use anywhere in your manifests.

Puppet also pre-sets some other special variables which behave a lot like facts.

This page describes how to use facts, and lists all of the special variables added by Puppet.

Which Facts?

Puppet can access the following facts:

You can see the list of core facts to get acquainted with what’s available. You can also run facter -p at the command line to see real-life values, or browse facts on node detail pages in the Puppet Enterprise console.

For building other tools, PuppetDB’s API offers powerful ways to to search and report on your entire deployment’s facts. (PuppetDB is included in Puppet Enterprise.)

Data Types

This version of Puppet supports fact values of any data type, but you may need to manually enable them:

Puppet Enterprise 3.7 Puppet 3.7 (open source release)
All data types enabled by default User must install Facter ≥ 2.0 on all nodes, upgrade to PuppetDB ≥ 2.2, then set stringify_facts = false in puppet.conf on all nodes (details here)

Handling String-Only Facts

Older versions of Puppet would always convert all fact values to strings. (Thus, false would become "false", and hash or array data structures were impossible.) This is still the default in open source releases of Puppet 3.7.

When Puppet is configured to use stringified facts, you’ll need to take extra care when dealing with boolean facts like $is_virtual, since the string "false" is actually true when used as the condition of an if statement.

If you’re writing code that might be used in Puppet installations without complete data types enabled for facts, you can use the str2bool function (from puppetlabs/stdlib) to prevent fake true values:

    if str2bool("$is_virtual") {
      ...
    }

This pattern (quote the variable, then pass it to str2bool) will work with both stringified facts and full data type support.

Accessing Facts From Puppet Code

There are two ways to access facts from Puppet code:

  • Classic $fact_name facts
  • The $facts['fact_name'] hash

Classic $fact_name Facts

All facts appear in Puppet as top-scope variables. They can be accessed in manifests as $fact_name.

Example, with the osfamily fact:

    if $osfamily == 'redhat' {
      # ...
    }

Benefits: Works in all versions of Puppet.

Drawbacks: It’s not immediately obvious that you’re using a fact — someone reading your code needs to know which facts exist to guess that you’re accessing a special top-scope variable. To get around this, some people use the $::fact_name idiom as a hint, to show that they’re accessing a top-scope variable.

Historical Note About $::

Classic facts use the same naming conventions as normal user-set variables, so the value of a fact variable can be overridden in a local scope.

Nowadays, this isn’t a problem, because:

  • If a programmer overrides a fact value in a local scope, it will only affect code that they control.
  • Most people don’t set tons of variables in node scope.

But prior to Puppet 3.0, Puppet’s long and unpredictable chains of dynamic parent scopes could create serious problems, where an overridden value would clobber distant code that was trying to access a normal fact. To defend against that, people started using the $::fact_name idiom to always access the top-scope value of a variable.

Then, when Puppet 2.7 added deprecation warnings about dynamic scope lookup, the code that implemented the warnings had an annoying bug that could cause false warnings when facts were accessed without a leading $::. This made even more people start using it, just to make the warnings go away.

Since Puppet 3.0, $::fact has never been strictly necessary, but some people still use it to alert readers that they’re using a top-scope variable, as described above.

The $facts['fact_name'] Hash

This feature may be enabled by default, or you may need to enable it manually:

Puppet Enterprise 3.7 Puppet 3.7 (open source release)
$facts hash enabled by default User must set trusted_node_data = true* in puppet.conf on the Puppet master server

If enabled, facts also appear in a $facts hash. They can be accessed in manifests as $facts['fact_name']. The variable name $facts will be reserved, so local scopes cannot re-use it.

Example, with the osfamily fact:

    if $facts['osfamily'] == 'redhat' {
      # ...
    }

Benefits: More readable and maintainable code, by making facts visibly distinct from other variables. Eliminates possible confusion if you use a local variable whose name happens to match that of a common fact.

Drawbacks: Only works with Puppet 3.5 or later, and only when enabled.

* Note: The $facts hash is enabled by default when setting trusted_node_data, but it can be disabled with the immutable_node_data setting.

Special Variables Added by Puppet

In addition to Facter’s core facts and any custom facts, Puppet creates some special variables of its own. The main categories of special variables are:

  • The $trusted hash, which has trusted data from the node’s certificate
  • Agent facts, which are set by puppet agent or puppet apply
  • Puppet master variables, which are set by the Puppet master (and sometimes by puppet apply)
  • Parser variables, which are special local variables set for each scope.

Trusted Facts

This feature may be enabled by default, or you may need to enable it manually:

Puppet Enterprise 3.7 Puppet 3.7 (open source release)
Trusted facts enabled by default User must set trusted_node_data = true in puppet.conf on the Puppet master server

If enabled, a few special trusted facts will appear in a $trusted hash. They can be accessed in manifests as $trusted['fact_name']. The variable name $trusted will be reserved, so local scopes cannot re-use it.

Normal facts are self-reported by the node, and nothing guarantees their accuracy. Trusted facts are extracted from the node’s certificate, which can prove that the CA checked and approved them. This makes them useful for deciding whether a given node should receive sensitive data in its catalog.

The available keys in the $trusted hash are:

  • authenticated — an indication of whether the catalog request was authenticated, as well as how it was authenticated. The value will be one of:
    • remote for authenticated remote requests (as with agent/master Puppet configurations)
    • local for all local requests (as with standalone Puppet apply nodes)
    • false for unauthenticated remote requests (generally only possible if you’ve configured auth.conf to allow unauthenticated catalog requests)
  • certname — the node’s subject CN, as listed in its certificate. (When first requesting its certificate, the node requests a subject CN matching the value of its certname setting.)
    • If authenticated is remote, this is the subject CN extracted from the node’s certificate.
    • If authenticated is local, this is read directly from the certname setting.
    • If authenticated is false, the value of this key will be an empty string.
  • extensions — a hash containing any custom extensions present in the node’s certificate.
    • The keys of the hash will be the extension OIDs — any OIDs in the ppRegCertExt range will appear using their short names, and other OIDs will appear as plain dotted numbers.
    • If no extensions are present or authenticated is local or false, this will be an empty hash.

Examples

The $trusted hash generally looks something like this:

    {
      'authenticated' => 'remote',
      'certname'      => 'web01.example.com',
      'extensions'    => {
                          'pp_uuid'                 => 'ED803750-E3C7-44F5-BB08-41A04433FE2E',
                          'pp_image_name'           => 'storefront_production'
                          '1.3.6.1.4.1.34380.1.2.1' => 'ssl-termination'
                       }
    }

Here’s a snippet of example Puppet code using a certificate extension:

    if $trusted['extensions']['pp_image_name'] == 'storefront_production' {
      include private::storefront::private_keys
    }

Puppet Agent Facts

Puppet agent and Puppet apply both add several extra pieces of info to their facts before requesting or compiling a catalog. Like other facts, these are available as either top-scope variables or elements in the $facts hash.

  • $clientcert — the value of the node’s certname setting. (This is self-reported; for the verified certificate name, use $trusted['certname'].)
  • $clientversion — the current version of Puppet agent.
  • $clientnoop — the value of the node’s noop setting (true or false) at the time of the run.

Puppet Master Variables

Several variables are set by the Puppet master. These are most useful when managing Puppet with Puppet. (For example, managing puppet.conf with a template.)

These are not available in the $facts hash.

  • $environment (also available to puppet apply) — the agent node’s environment.
  • $servername — the Puppet master’s fully-qualified domain name. (Note that this information is gathered from the Puppet master by Facter, rather than read from the config files; even if the master’s certname is set to something other than its fully-qualified domain name, this variable will still contain the server’s fqdn.)
  • $serverip — the Puppet master’s IP address.
  • $serverversion — the current version of Puppet on the Puppet master.
  • $settings::<name of setting> (also available to puppet apply) — the value of any of the master’s settings. This is implemented as a special namespace and these variables must be referred to by their qualified names. Note that, other than $environment and $clientnoop, the agent node’s settings are not available in manifests. If you wish to expose them to the master in this version of Puppet, you will have to create a custom fact.

Parser Variables

These variables are set in every local scope by the parser during compilation. These are mostly useful when implementing complex defined types.

These are not available in the $facts hash.

As of Puppet 3.7.5: These variables are always defined (by the standards of the strict_variables setting), but their value is undef whenever no other value is applicable.

  • $module_name — the name of the module that contains the current class or defined type.
  • $caller_module_name — the name of the module in which the specific instance of the surrounding defined type was declared. This is only useful when creating versatile defined types which will be re-used by several modules.

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