Module Writing Basics for *nix

A newer version is available; see the version menu above for details.

Welcome to the writing modules exercise in the Puppet Enterprise Quick Start Guide series. This document is a short walk-through of Puppet modules, module development, and additional PE features. Follow along to learn how to:

  • Modify a module obtained from the Forge
  • Write your own Puppet module
  • Create a site module that composes other modules into machine roles
  • Apply Puppet classes to groups by using the console

Before starting this walk-through, complete the previous exercises in the introductory quick start guide. You should still be logged in as root or administrator on your nodes.

Getting Started

In the Apache module installation QSG, you installed the latest version of the puppetlabs-apache module.

If you do not have this installed, install it by running puppet module install puppetlabs-apache.

Editing a Forge Module

Although many Forge modules are exact solutions that fit your site, many are almost but not quite what you need. Sometimes you will need to edit a Forge modules.

Module Basics

By default, modules are stored in /etc/puppetlabs/code/environments/production/modules. You can configure this path with the modulepath setting in puppet.conf.)

Modules are directory trees. For these exercises you’ll use the following files:

  • apache/ (the module name)
    • manifests/
      • init.pp (contains the apache class)
      • php.pp (contains the php class to install PHP for Apache)
      • vhost.pp (contains the Apache virtual hosts class)
    • templates/
      • vhost/
        • _file_header.erb (contains the vhost template, managed by PE)

Every manifest (.pp) file contains a single class. File names map to class names in a predictable way: init.pp contains a class with the same name as the module, in this case apache. <NAME>.pp contains a class called <MODULE NAME>::<NAME>. <NAME>/<OTHER NAME>.pp contains <MODULE NAME>::<NAME>::<OTHER NAME>.

Many modules, including Apache, contain directories other than manifests and templates. For simplicity’s sake, we do not cover them in this introductory guide.

Editing a Manifest

In this simplified exercise, you’ll modify a template from the Puppet Labs Apache module, specifically 'vhost.conf.erb, to include some simple variables that will be populated by facts (using PE’s implementation of Facter) about your node.

  1. On the Puppet master, navigate to the modules directory by running cd /etc/puppetlabs/code/environments/production/modules.
  2. Run ls to view the currently installed modules and note that apache is present.
  3. Open apache/templates/vhost/_file_header.erb in a text editor. Avoid using Notepad because it can introduce errors. The _file_header.erb file contains the following header:

     # ************************************
     # Vhost template in module puppetlabs-apache
     # Managed by Puppet
     # ************************************
  4. Collect the following facts about your agent node:
    • run facter osfamily (this returns your agent node’s OS)
    • run facter id (this returns the id of the currently logged in user)
  5. Edit the header of _file_header.erb so that it contains the following variables for Facter lookups:

     # ************************************
     # Vhost template in module puppetlabs-apache
     # Managed by Puppet
     # This file is authorized for deployment by <%= scope.lookupvar('::id') %>.
     # This file is authorized for deployment ONLY on <%= scope.lookupvar('::osfamily') %> <%= scope.lookupvar('::operatingsystemmajrelease')     %>.
     # Deployment by any other user or on any other system is strictly prohibited.
     # ************************************
  6. In the console, add apache to the available classes, and then add that class to your agent node. Refer to the Adding Classes Quick Start Guide if you need help with these steps.
  7. When Puppet runs it configures apache and starts the httpd service. When this happens, a default apache vhost is created based on the contents of _file_header.erb.

  8. On the agent node, navigate to one of the following locations, depending on your operating system:
    • Redhat-based: /etc/httpd/conf.d
    • Debian-based: /etc/apache2/sites-available
  9. View 15-default.conf; depending on the node’s OS, the header will show some variation of the following contents:

     # ************************************
     # Vhost template in module puppetlabs-apache
     # Managed by Puppet
     # This file is authorized for deployment by root.
     # This file is authorized for deployment ONLY on Redhat 6.
     # Deployment by any other user or on any other system is strictly prohibited.
     # ************************************

As you can see, PE has used Facter to retrieve some key facts about your node, and then used those facts to populate the header of your vhost template.

But now, let’s see what happens you write your own Puppet code.

Writing a Puppet Module

Puppet Labs modules save time, but at some point you might need to write your own modules.

Writing a Class in a Module

During this exercise, you will create a class called pe_quickstart_app that will manage a PHP-based web app running on an Apache virtual host.

  1. On the Puppet master, make sure you’re still in the modules directory:cd /etc/puppetlabs/code/environments/production/modules. Then run mkdir -p pe_quickstart_app/manifests to create the new module directory and its manifests directory.
  2. Use your text editor to create and open the pe_quickstart_app/manifests/init.pp file.
  3. Edit the init.pp file so it contains the following Puppet code, and then save it and exit the editor:

     class pe_quickstart_app {
       class { 'apache':
         mpm_module => 'prefork',
       include apache::mod::php
       apache::vhost { 'pe_quickstart_app':
         port     => '80',
         docroot  => '/var/www/pe_quickstart_app',
         priority => '10',
       file { '/var/www/pe_quickstart_app/index.php':
         ensure  => file,
         content => "<?php phpinfo() ?>\n",
         mode    => '0644',

You have written a new module pe_quickstart_app containing a new class that includes two other classes. Puppet now knows about your new class, and it can be added to the console and assigned to nodes.

Note the following about your new class:

  • The class apache has been modified to include the mpm_module attribute; this attribute determines which multi-process module is configured and loaded for the Apache (HTTPD) process. In this case, the value is set to prefork.
  • include apache::mod::php indicates that your new class relies on those classes to function correctly. However, PE understands that your node needs to be classified with these classes and will take care of that work automatically when you classify your node with the pe_quickstart_app class; in other words, you don’t need to worry about classifying your nodes with Apache and Apache PHP.
  • The priority attribute of 10 ensures that your app has a higher priority on port 80 than the default Apache vhost app.
  • The file /var/pe_quickstart_app/index.php contains whatever is specified by the content attribute. This is the content you will see when you launch your app. PE uses the ensure attribute to create that file the first time the class is applied.

For more information about writing classes, refer to the following documentation:

Using Your Custom Module in the Console

  1. In the console, click Add classes, choose the pe_quickstart_app class from the list, and then click Add selected classes to make it available, just as in the previous example. You might need to wait a moment or two for the class to show up in the list.
  2. Navigate to the node view page for your agent, and click Edit to add the pe_quickstart_app class and to remove the apache class you previously added.

    Note: Since the pe_quickstart_app includes the apache class, you need to remove the first apache class you added, as Puppet will only allow you to declare a class once.

  3. From the command line on your agent, run puppet agent -t.

    When the Puppet run is complete, you will see in the node’s log that a vhost for the app was created and the Apache service (httpd) started.

  4. Use a browser to navigate to port 80 of the IP address for your node: http://<yournodeip>:80.

    Tip: Be sure to use http, not https.

    PHP Info Page

You have created a new class from scratch and used it to launch a Apache PHP-based web app. Needless to say, in the real world, your apps will do a lot more than display PHP info pages. But for the purposes of this exercise, let’s take a closer look at how PE is managing your app.

Using PE to Manage Your App

  1. On the agent, open /var/www/pe_quickstart_app/index.php, and change the content; change it to something like, “THIS APP IS MANAGED BY PUPPET!”
  2. Refresh your browser, and notice that the PHP info page has been replaced with your new message.
  3. After Puppet runs, refresh your browser, and notice that Puppet has reset your web app to display the PHP info page. You can also see that the content of /var/www/pe_quickstart_app/index.php has been reset to what was specified in your manifest.

Using a Site Module

Many users create a “site” module. Instead of describing smaller units of a configuration, the classes in a site module describe a complete configuration for a given type of machine. For example, a site module might contain:

  • A site::basic class, for nodes that require security management but haven’t been given a specialized role yet.
  • A site::webserver class for nodes that serve web content.
  • A site::dbserver class for nodes that provide a database server to other applications.

Site modules hide complexity so you can more easily divide labor at your site. System architects can create the site classes, and junior admins can create new machines and assign a single “role” class to them in the console. In this workflow, the console controls policy, not fine-grained implementation.

  • On the Puppet master, create /etc/puppetlabs/code/environments/production/modules/site/manifests/basic.pp, and edit the file to contain the following:

      class site::basic {
        if $kernel == 'Linux' {
          include pe_quickstart_app
        elsif $kernel == 'windows' {
          include registry::compliance_example

This class declares other classes with the include function. Note the “if” conditional that sets different classes for different kernels using the $kernel fact. In this example, if an agent node is a Linux machine, Puppet will apply your pe_quickstart_app class; if it is a Windows machine, Puppet will apply the registry::compliance_example class. For more information about declaring classes, see the modules and classes chapters of Learning Puppet.

  1. On the console, remove all of the previous example classes from your nodes and groups by editing each node or group page. Be sure to leave the pe_* classes in place.
  2. Add the site::basic class to the console by clicking Add classes in the sidebar as before.
  3. Assign the site::basic class to the apache_example group you created in the Adding Classes QSG.

Your nodes are now receiving the same configurations as before, but with a simplified interface in the console. Instead of deciding which classes a new node should receive, you can decide what type of node it is and take advantage of decisions you made earlier.


You have now performed the core workflows of an intermediate Puppet user. In the course of their normal work, intermediate users:

  • Download and modify Forge modules to fit their deployment’s needs.
  • Create new modules and write new classes to manage many types of resources, including files, services, and more.
  • Build and curate a site module to safely empower junior admins and simplify the decisions involved in deploying new machines.

↑ Back to top